tv Fareed Zakaria GPS CNN March 15, 2015 10:00am-11:01am PDT
>> i should say someone offered cheesecake to jeb bush at that party but he turned it down saying he's on the paleo diet. let's say if he can have the same restraint with grits and biscuits when he heads to south carolina later this week. thanks for watching. "fareed zakaria gps" starts right now. ♪ ♪ >> july 16th, 1969 "apollo 11" saturn 5 rocket longer than a football field, brakes free of the launchpad. its destination, the moon. the "apollo" program launched
the imaginations of america's greatest minds, spurred by the boldest dare in human history. >> we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things not because they are easy but because they are hard. >> the eagle has landed. >> now we can see you coming down. >> a moonshot for all of humanity. >> that's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. >> that first walk on the moon was over 40 years ago. in this hour we'll explore five great moon shots of today. sending astronauts to mars. 3-d printing a human heart. creating a star on earth. flying from new york to london in an hour. and mapping the human brain. welcome to a "gps" special, "moon shots for the 21st century."
it was early december 2014 at cape canaveral. >> beautiful morning for a launch in florida. >> but it felt a little bit like the days of apollo. >> go. >> bp. >> go. >> status check. >> go delta. >> at the top of a delta 4 heavy rocket sat orion, the spacecraft nasa has designed for sending human beings to mars. >> three, two, one -- and lift-off. at dawn, the dawn of orion, the new era of american space exploration. >> it went farther into space than any other nasa craft meant
for humans in over 40 years. fourteen times higher than the international space station. >> we are now just a few miles away from reaching peak altitude. >> then it returned at speeds of up to 20,000 miles per hour withstanding 4,000 degree heat before splashing down in the pacific ocean. >> orion's maiden flight from start to finish was picture perfect. >> the trip lasted only four and a half hours. but nasa hopes future versions of orion will take the much longer journey with astronauts all the way to mars. >> when the american people get behind something and international community gets behind it, we can do anything we want to do. >> charles bowden has served at nasa for nearly two decades, leaving the agency in 2009. >> usually launches are emotional, but it was an incredible day.
anybody who knows what's going on and doesn't tear up, they are pretty hard. >> why send a manned mission to mars? this is going to be expensive, challenging. why do it? >> we have to. you have to send a human somewhere if you really want to find difficult answers. is there life somewhere else in our universe. is there the real possibility that humans can exist somewhere away from earth? that's really, really important. i happen to be one who believes a multi-planet species can survive in perpetuity. single planet species will die away. >> nasa says it will send humans to mars in the 2030s. they are making more progress toward that goal than you might realize. >> eight, seven, six -- >> to cheat earth's gravity with a crew of astronauts and the things they will need for mars, nasa needs a new ride. >> liftoff. >> so it's building a new
generation of rockets, some of the largest, most powerful rockets it has ever built, measuring taller than the statue of liberty. a massive welding tool will piece together cylinders and domes that will make up the rocket's fuel tanks. to save a few bucks, nasa will use engines from the old space shuttle fleet which still have talent of power. after leaving earth, the astronauts will face at least 34 million miles of space travel, a month's long journey, nasa says. the whole mission could last three years. human beings can go crazy in that kind of cramped long-term isolation. so to see how a crew can cope, nasa is funding isolation studies like the high seas mission.
five people spent four months in a small dome on the mars-like volcano in hawaii. >> this is the main living space right here. >> there was a 20-minute communication delay with the outside world, similar to what mars astronauts would face. >> this is the only window that we have in the habitat. >> the only time they were allowed to leave the habitat was in spacesuits. >> okay. >> we haven't had a huge amount of interpersonal conflict, although every once in a while -- >> not always facing away from the camera. >> to keep track of the mood, crew members wore devices that detected the volume of their voices and their proximity to one another. their writing analyzed by a computer program that looked for telling words and phrases. >> words that tend to have stronger emotional content. obviously key words like
"frustrated" and "jerk" and stuff like that can be signs. but there's also subtler signs as well. >> the day the mission ended was a happy one for the crew. they told us things went well. >> there were going to be ups and downs. >> what i found really difficult is -- >> but admitted there was some testy moments. >> sixty days in you're going why am i reacting this way. i never react this way. this isn't who i am. >> the final leg of the journey might be the most difficult of all, the landing. >> touchdown confirmed. >> nasa hopes to learn from the landings of mars rover's like "curiosity" which has been roam being the red planet for over two years now. >> i remember after landing being sort of bewildered. it's like a decade of my life is done. it worked.
>> adam steltzner is the rock star rocket scientist at the nasa's jet propulsion laboratory whose team made the landing happen. >> mars has an annoying atmosphere. it's very thin, equivalent to the atmosphere on earth at 120,000 to 150,000 feet. >> that was too thin to slow down "curiosity" enough with parachutes. so he and his team lowered a craft to the surface with a cable, speed off and crash-land a safe distance away. >> we knew every time we spoke of it, we'd lose our credibility because it looked so crazy. >> the crazy plan worked. landing humans on the red planet will be a lot harder than landing a rover. >> "curiosity" was about two tons two metric tons, as she
aproefda approached the surface of mars. and we think that a human vessel would be something like 20 or 40 metric tons as it approached the surface of mars. >> what's the single hardest thing about getting to mars? >> convincing people it's worth it is the single most difficult thing, convincing the american taxpayer, the administration, the congress that it's really worth this, and that there is a benefit to be gained is probably the single most -- much more difficult than the technological challenges out there. >> do you wish, though, there was a much more ambitious funding -- >> fareed, see, you're going to get me in trouble. yes. i'm the nasa administrator. i always wish for much, much more. this is really hard. and this is very risky. and we are going to lose people and things along the way, but it is so worth it. because what we are going to do for humanity by making us a
multi-planet species is unimaginable. it's mind boggling the way it's going to be an advantage to humanity. we can't even imagine it now. coming up 3-d printers can make some amazing things these days. but what about printing human organs? one man says that ten years from now, he will be able to print an entire human heart. and later, a moonshot for energy. we'll show you how scientists are trying to create a star right here on earth. 40% of the streetlights in detroit, at one point, did not work. you had some blocks and you had major thoroughfares and corridors that were just totally pitch black. those things had to change. we wanted to restore our lighting system in the city. you can have the greatest dreams in the world, but unless you can finance those dreams, it doesn't happen.
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needs a new heart. perfect. put your bracelet on. >> five-year-old ella kroese perfect. put your bracelet on. >> five-year-old ella kroese needs a new heart. >> pictures of your belly, okay, then some of you here. okay? >> she was born with a serious heart defect. three open heart surgeries weren't enough to fix it.
>> breathe. >> only the right sized heart with the right blood type will do. even though she's in the top priority category for a transplant, she's been waiting for months. >> this is one thing that attacks every single emotion you have in your body. fear, anxiety, every day. >> hi. >> hey, ella. how are you? >> thousands of americans like ella are on the national waiting list for a new heart, according to the u.s. government. even if they get one, their bodies may reject it. but what if doctors could manufacture a heart with a patient's own cells using a 3-d printer? that new machine that makes everything from food to shoes to cars. if that sounds like a pipe dream, say hello to the bioassembly bot. it's a robot that can already print several parts of the heart. >> i can tell the robot printer
to print this for us. this is what we are going to print for you. >> blood vessels, valves and the heart's walls. it can print these parts with living, human cells. and one of its masterminds believes it can print an entire heart within a moonshot timeframe. >> i really think if we put a large team together, which we are, i think we can get there within ten years. >> dr. stewart williams at the university of louisville leads the team working toward this goal. >> verify and keep eyes on pressures. >> for williams, the goal is personal. >> my dad died of heart disease. and the devices, the instruments that would really have been necessary to keep his heart functioning were not available at that time. so it really grew out of a personal vendetta that i had against cardiovascular pathology. >> now, he and his colleagues are pioneers in the field of bioprinting.
>> we are taking biology and making it i.t. >> having built a six-axis robot that they say would create a heart right in the operating room. what would this look like visually? i'm still trying to understand. you press a button and this thing would actually print a heart? is that what would happen? >> precisely. that is the plan. >> mri images of a healthy heart. >> hold your breath. >> would be converted into a digital 3-d model. then the patient's own fat would be taken out and converted into the different cells that make up the heart. >> we now have these incredible capabilities to take an adult cell and transform it into other types of cells. >> parts of the heart would then be bioprinted, piece by piece and soon you would have a new heart. how long would it take to print a heart? >> the printing of a heart, i
believe, could be accomplished in essentially a single day. >> doctor williams and his team aren't the only bioprinters on the block. a group at cornell university has bioprinted a human ear. >> cold collagen gel being deposited on to the warm plate. what that does is enables you to get really sharp edges and sharp boundaries. >> it takes the doctor and his team just 15 minutes to print one. >> they are pretty robust. you know, i can pick them up. it will bend and do the things normal cartilage should do. >> 3-d printed ears and other body parts -- >> this is a meniscus. >> -- could be used in human trials in less than five years. >> it brings the ability to make thousands, millions of tissue and customize them for individual people.
>> the heart has one major blood vessel called the left main artery. >> what's stopping us from making better organs, asks dr. williams? >> whoever put this original plan together put one major blood vessel leading into the left side, the major part of the heart. when that vessel becomes dysfunctional, we call it the widowmaker. when that vessel fails, the patient will often die. we can build a new heart based upon a design that has two or three blood vessels, a redundancy in this organ. >> do you sometimes worry that you're playing god, that you're actually creating human beings, parts of human beings? >> well i don't worry about that. but i certainly hope that this technology can benefit as many people as is possible. >> do you have any questions? >> no. >> people like ella kroese and the millions of others who suffer from heart defects and heart disease -- >> all right, miss ella, i think
you are doing great. >> if dr. williams' moonshot becomes a reality, children like ella may not be waiting for a heart any longer. >> if somebody could tell you, hey, i can make you an organ in x, y, z time, it would be huge for a family. coming up, scientists believe they could help power the world with a moonshot for energy, creating a star here on earth. later, a new jet engine could have us flying at five times the speed of sound. that would mean you could get anywhere in the world in just four hours.
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what if we could somehow bring this blazing ball of energy down to earth to power our world. in southern france, at this construction site, a team of scientists is trying to do just that. in the center of this pit, they are hoping to pull off one of the most audacious feats of physics ever witnessed -- creating a star. >> we want to create a sun here on earth. >> dr. ned sotter, a plasma physicist, leads the u.s. contribution to this effort. a collaboration of 35 countries representing over half the world he a population, including china and russia. the project is called "eteiti"iter,"
which is latten for "the way." if it's successful, it would be one of mankind's most significant achievements ever. you are going to create a temperatures on earth that is thousands of times hotter than anything on earth, correct? >> we are trying to create the hottest thing in the solar system. >> you are trying to do something that people thought was unimaginable. >> absolutely true. >> here's how iter would work. the sun's energy comes from nuclear fusion in which atoms fuse together. the device would create fusion by heating up forms of hydrogen to temperatures ten times hotter than the sun. containing that hot gas would be a powerful magnetic field created by big super conducting magnets. >> it's a magnetic field 100,000 times stronger than the earth's magnetic field. >> it shields the heat. >> that's correct. >> this sounds so dangerous. what if it explodes in some
sense? >> first of all, this thing is very hard to keep going. >> understand we are not talking here about nuclear fission reactions, by which today's nuclear reactors can lead to meltdowns like chernobyl. reactions are actually very, very difficult to sustain. but they hope to create the longest, most efficient, most powerful one ever. a milestone that could change the world. 7 >> we are exploiting a huge energy source. >> mark henderson, another iter physicist notes that you could get all of the hydrogen you need to power fusion from one of the most abundant resources on earth -- ocean water. there's enough hydrogen in the ocean to power humanity with fusion for millions of years,
says iter. fusion reactions wouldn't produce any carbon emissions. >> what this is is a future investment for your children and your children's children. >> it may be a noble experiment but success will not come easily. >> almost everything here is a challenge because of the high accuracy with very large components. >> this man has one of the hardest jobs on the project. smoothing out technical issues between the countries as they build a very complex machine. china is making cables for the super conducting magnets. the u.s. is winding cables and building iter's largest magnet. india is making the enormous steel structure that will surround iter's magnets. that's just a sampling of the work these countries and others are doing. >> this is political because
everyone wants to gain the knowledge to build a fusion reactor like iter. >> already, the estimated cost has skyrocketed. in an internal review of the project leaked to "the new yorker" said that iter is mired in gridlock. >> there are some criticisms about the project that is not being managed well. perhaps because it is so international. >> how do you respond to that? >> i respond iter isn't just an experiment in science and technology it is an experiment in international cooperation. >> iter officials and others in the fusion field insist that the science behind iter is sound. if fusion energy can eventually be harnessed, it would have a profound impact on our lives. >> i honestly believe that fusion will save the day because the amount of energy that we have in the oceans is enough to live off of for all people on the earth for many, many, many generations. up next, a new technology could have us flying from new york to london in just one hour.
that's one mile per second. and later, paraplegics are learning to walk again thanks to a remarkable moonshot in neuroscience. hello. i am here to offer sophisticated investing strategies. my technology can help you choose the right portfolio. monitor it. and automatically rebalance it. all without charging advisory fees, account service fees or commissions. that may be hard to compute. but i'm a computer. so trust me. it computes. say hello at intelligent.schwab.com
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visit alwaysdiscreet.com for coupons and to learn more. what if you could fly from new york city to london in just one hour? or fly from london to tokyo in two hours? or fly anywhere in the world in just four hours? >> there we go. 60 seconds to launch. >> may 1st, 2013. about 50,000 feet over the pacific ocean.
>> people are really nervous. engineers are a terrible breed. they start second-guessing themselves. >> a b-52 bomber gets ready to launch this. it's not a bomb, it's an aircraft designed to fly five times the speed of sound. it's called the x-51a waverider. for robert and his team at the air force research laboratory, it's a do-or-die flight. the x-51 had flown three times before. >> we have a booster burnout. >> with one partial success and two duds. >> it was always scheduled to go into the ocean, but not after just 30 seconds. >> everybody knows this has to be perfect. >> on their fourth try, the team get exactly what they're hoping for -- the longest flight ever
with a new engine that can fly one mile in one second. big ben and the big apple would be only an hour apart at that speed. >> we have the technology in hand to be able to design and build an engine that can fly in that extreme environment for however long we can carry fuel. if we had more fuel, we could have flown further. >> today's jet engines have trouble going faster than two or three times the speed of sound because their rotating parts would get too hot. but the engine that powered waverider had virtually no moving parts. it's called a scram jet engine. here's how it works. air from outside the aircraft is allowed to flow through the engine supersonically. that extremely hot air is mixed with jet fuel and lit on fire at just the right moment to create
propulsion. a truly astonishing feat in aviation. >> it's been likened to lighting a match inside of a blowing hurricane. >> with the scramjet, you're not just flying supersonically, you're flying hypersonically, five times the sound barrier. the air force research laboratory is one of the government agencies leading the charge on this technology. we were given access to their facility on wright patterson air force base in ohio. >> we are going to be going to as we go to larger sizes. >> engineers here are working on the next big thing in hypersonic flight. a high-speed strike weapon that could evade any air defense system. >> i really can't go into details on that. that's getting closer to being ready for application.
>> they're also developing a hypersonic plane which they hope would fly twice as fast as the sr-71 black bird which flew over three times the sound barrier. the ultimate dream would be commercial hypersonic flight. that's not the air force's mission, but he says it's possible, assuming the big challenges can be overcome, like dealing with the unreal heat involved. >> the outside of the vehicle, we're seeing 2,250 degrees fahrenheit. the inside of the vehicle where the engine is? about a toasty 5,000 degrees fahrenheit. >> thanks to the lessons from projects like the waverider, they believe we could have commercial hypersonic flight as soon as 2030. >> hypersonics is one of the last great frontiers in aeronautics.
with this craft, we are opening the door and moving into that arena. >> coming up, ever want to be a race car driver? or a gourmet chef? or a great golfer? or talk to a famous historical figure as if he was still alive? we'll look at some exciting moonshots in neuro science. and later -- is the united states losing its edge in science and technology?
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>> i know kung fu. >> what if we could download a skill into our brains as easily as keanu reeves did in "the matrix"? >> how do you like your woman? blond, brunette, red head?n? blond, brunette, red head?en? blond, brunette, red head? >> or implant a memory we never experienced like in "total n? blond, brunette, red head? >> or implant a memory we never experienced like in "total en? blond, brunette, red head? >> or implant a memory we never experienced like in "total recall". or control an "avatar" with our thoughts, like in the james cameron film. >> you are not used to your "avatar" body. is dangerous. >> this is great. >> science fiction could become a reality sooner than you think, if we could map the human brain.
>> we have learned more about the brain in the last 10 and 15 years than in all of human history combined. >> of a theoretical fizzphysicist and cbs news science contributor details these exciting possibilities and the current state of the brain in his latest book, "the future of the mind." >> we can actually photograph a thought, communicate these thoughts to a robot or computer. these were all considered to be preposterous just 10 to 15 years ago, and now we do it. >> just as the telescope revolutionized astronomy, he says the mri and other technologies have led to a golden age into neuro science. >> we can actually see desire, self-awareness or guilty conscience. we can actually see these as blood flows as registered by an mri machine. >> the biggest moonshot in this field might be to map all of the
inner workings of the brain down to the neuron, similar to mapping the human genome. >> the next great american project, that's what we're calling the brain initiative. >> president obama obama announced the brain initiative in 2013. it's an effort to show how the brain's neurocircuits work together in real time. >> it won't be easy, but think about what we could do once we do crack this code. >> is it more difficult to map the brain than it was to map the human genome which initially took about 10 or 15 years. >> it will take a lot of time. realize that the human genome project only talked about maybe 20,000 genes or so that governed the human body. the brain has 100 billion neurons. each neuron connected to 10,000 other neurons. that's as many stars as there are in the milky way galaxy. so it will take time. >> europe's human brain project
aims to simulate the brain on a super computer. that won't be easy given that today's most powerful computers have just a fraction of the power necessary to do the job. but don't worry, scientists are already achieving what was once thought impossible. juliano pinto is paralyzed from the chest down. but he's learned to walk again, using and exoskeleton connected to his brain. one small step for pinto, one giant leap for neuroscience. >> it was a moonshot. it was our neuroscience moonshot. these are all the people around the world that collaborated in the project. >> this doctor the head of the walk again project, trained eight paraplegics in brazil to operate hydraulic legs using only their thoughts. patients simply think of the act
of walking and a special cap reads their brain's electrical signals, which are decoded into commands for the legs. >> in less than a decade, we went from a concept to a clinically relevant application that can impact the lives of 20, 30 million people around the world. >> the exoskeleton allows the patients to feel each step they are taking. sensors like these send signals to the patient's arms which stimulates them with feeling. >> they had, for the first time in years, the ability to feel that they were touching the ground that their knees are flexing or that their foot is making contact with an object, like a soccer ball. >> the project culminated before the opening match of the 2014 world cup where juliano pinto made the ceremonial first kick viewed by an audience of millions around the world.
>> the thing that touched me the most was when he said i touched the ball. i felt the ball. i felt the ball when i kick it. >> where is this ground breaking neuroscience leading us? >> i have to trust my body to know what to do. >> that's where all the hollywood science fiction comes in. >> one day we will actually connect the human mind to a robot, an avatar an avatar that may one day walk on the moon governed by an restaurant who's sitting on his laptop in his living room. >> would it be possible to take a skill and inject it into the brain? i'm thinking of "the matrix" and keanu reeves instantly learning martial arts. >> i'm going to learn jujitsu. >> this is conceivable. one day we might have the ability to insert the vacation that we never had into our mind. >> come to recall incorporated where you can buy the memory of your ideal vacation.
>> beyond that, maybe even upgrading the skills of workers. why not record the skills that require high-tech and insert them into workers so they can upgrade their skills rather than having to go to junior colleges and struggle with courses. it may be a way to upgrade the skills of the population. >> ultimately, he says, if we can upload our brains into a computer, we could outlive our frail bodies and perhaps achieve immortality. >> perhaps one day we'll have a library of souls. instead of going to the library to read up on winston churchill, we'll see a hologram and have a conversation with winston churchill with all the memories and all the personality quirks. one day our descendants may have a conversation with us because we live forever in a library of souls. >> you really think this is possible? >> well just realize that today, we're just at the beginning of this revolution. we're beginning now to record
thoughts. and the very fact that we can talk about this in a scientific way means that we've all of a sudden crossed a watershed. >> up next -- will the u.s. still be the nation that can achieve the moonshots of the 21st century? or will other countries power ahead? with it neutralizes stomach acid and is the only product that forms a protective barrier that helps keep stomach acid in the stomach where it belongs. for fast-acting, long-lasting relief. try gaviscon®. the garden is the story of our lives... told and retold. it's as old as our time on earth. and as new as tomorrow. you can have a yard. or slightly less.
the answer is yes. think of it this way, imagine that the apollo moon landing hadn't happened. the challenge of getting to the moon and back meant coming up with all kinds of technological innovations and solutions that have then had almost miraculous commercial applications. for example, apollo needed small computers for its trip. >> we see a real display now. >> so nasa said it made a big push into an integrated technology the innovation behind what we now know as a microchip. the ones that developed this
whose alumni founded intel, primarily had nasa to thank for the popularity of the technology that followed. the u.s. government by buying the initial products helped the computer revolution take off. and it's not just the microchip. >> would you like to begin and a half navigation? >> the next phase of the evolution was originally developed by the u.s. military. it was only after the 1983 soviet shootdown of a korean airlines flight that the reagan administration said they would share the technology so that civilian planes would not wander into restricted and dangerous territories. and it was only after unleashed
a flood of innovation that continues to be this day. or consider the mapping of the human genome the federal government spent $3.8 billion on this massive project from 1990 to 2003 and few other entities could ever have affordsed. but in leading the way, it encouraged others and now a person's dna can be sequenced for as little as $1,000. the impact on the economy of the human genome sinequencing because produced by intel for $796 billion. if you listen to all this and think that the u.s. is on the
right track, it is not. federal research sec -- if you look at the numbers from the national science foundation. since big entitlements like social security are mandatory -- this comes at a time when others around the world are moving fasts, the united states has dominated the world of basic science for years, even decades. but it's share of research development has been falling, from 37% of the total in 2001 to now 30%, according to the national science foundation. china is on course to surpass the united states in the percent of its gdp it spends on research and development in just a few years. it used to be funding basic science was not a partisan issue.
a republican was a big proponent of basic research. >> although basic research does not begin with a particular practical goal when you look at the results over the years, it ends up being one of the most practical things government does this is why i urge congress to devote more money to research. it is an indispensable investment in america's future. >> that was of course ronald reagan in are 1988 address. moon shots not only inspire us but also take us into the future. let's hope that many of you especially the young amongst you might be inspired by the projects we described to work on the moon shots of the future maybe one day cnn will have a program on your moon shot. thanks for watching this special
edition of gps, you can watch us every sunday at 10:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. eastern. hello, everyone and thank you for joining us in the nauz room. we start this hour with breaking news police have made an arrest in connection with the shooting of those two police officers in ferguson missouri. stephanie elam is on the phone with us now. what can you tell us about this arrest? >> reporter: the st. louis county jail is holding a man who is being held on a 24-hour hold for assault against a police officer and for firing at or from a vehicle. this is related to that shooting of the two police officers outside of the fer